Using Endophytes in your permanent pasture mixes improves animal health providing better animal performance, more palatable pasture, and easier pasture management.

What is Endophyte?

Endophyte is a fungus (called Neotyphodium lolii) that greatly affects animal health and performance. Endophyte is found only in ryegrass and tall fescue. It lives completely within the plant and is only visible under a microscope. Endophyte occurs naturally, and is found in many old pastures.

Why have Endophyte?

There are many different types of Endophyte currently available and each varies in persistance, yield, and insect protection. Endophyte protects plants from a range of insects. In dry summer situations ryegrass containing endophyte consistently out-yields and persists better than ryegrass Without endophyte.
Please browse the different the types of ryegrass endophyte below:

GrubOUT U2 Endophyte


The GrubOUT® U2 endophyte is a strain of Neotyphodium uncinatum. It contains a unique set of alkaloids called lolines, which insects don’t like. Use GrubOUT® U2 and enjoy the benefits of better pasture protection against insect pests, improved pasture persistence and superior livestock performance potential. Its benefits include:

  • Protection of host grasses against root and top feeding insect pests including:
    • Grass grub larvae
    • Black beetle adults and larvae
    • Argentine stem weevil
    • Porina caterpillar
    • The red headed pasture cockchafer and more
  • Improved pasture persistence
  • No known ill-effects to sheep, cattle or deer. (No grass staggers or heat stress either)
  • High palatability and animal acceptance
  • Enhanced livestock performance
  • Better farm profit potential

If you have any questions on GrubOUT please contact Specialty Seeds.

Without Endophyte (WE)

Without Endophyte gives good animal performance, but reduced insect resistance. Only suitable for summer wet South Island areas.

Low Endophyte (LE)

Low Endophyte grasses provides better animal performance than High Endophyte ones but the downside of this is that it wont persist as well.

High / Standard Endophyte (HE/SE)

High/ Standard Endophyte is still available in some older varieties. It is not recommended because it causes ryegrass staggers, depresses liveweight gains in lambs and reduces milk production in dairy cows. This type of endophyte although persists extremely well in tough conditions.

AR1 Endophyte


Ryegrass with AR1 endophyte is a non-staggering endophyte that has excellent animal performance. However, the Peramine does not give good resistance against Black Beetle, and care is needed in areas with high Black Beetle numbers, such as the northern half of the North Island. AR1 endophyte has now been extensively field-tested for animal safety and productivity, and is now available commercially in a number of ryegrass cultivars.

AR1 endophyte in ryegrass offers the following benefits:

  • Better liveweight gains and milk production than wild-type endophyte ryegrass
  • No ryegrass staggers
  • No heat stress
  • Less dags and flystrike
  • No prolactin depression
  • Excellent control of Argentine stem weevil
  • Pasture productivity similar to that of wild-type endophyte ryegrass
  • Better pasture persistence than endophyte-free ryegrass


AR6 Endophyte

These are non-staggering endophytes that provide the equivalent insect protection of AR1, with the additional benefit of resistance to Black Beetle through the presence of low to moderate levels of Ergovaline. AR6 pastures are likely to persist better than AR1 pastures in areas with high Black Beetle numbers, such as the northern North Island.

AR37 Endophyte:


Ryegrass with AR37 gives you simple, economical insect control and around the clock protection from most pasture pests. AR37’s continual and superior insect protection ensures maximum pasture production and better pasture persistence allowing higher animal productivity. AR37 endophyte in ryegrass offers the following benefits:

  • Greater insect protection than any commercially available ryegrass endophyte
  • Continual protection against Argentine Stem Weevil, Adult Black Beetle, Pasture Mealy Bug, Root Aphid and Porina
  • Improves tiller density and persistence of perennial ryegrass
  • Maximises animal performance
  • Higher pasture productivity allowing higher animal productivity and more profit


Edge Endophyte

Edge is a novel endophyte discovered by DLF Seeds Endophyte Programme. It produces high levels of peramine, a powerful insect deterrent. It does not produce any Lolitrem B, or janthitrems alkaloids. It has a trace of ergovaline. This combination has resulted in a ryegrass endophyte that gives tolerance to black beetle and ASW, but is safe on animals.

Endo 5 Endophyte

Ryegrass with Endo5 protects against a range of pasture insect pests including Argentine Stem Weevil, Adult Black beetle and Pasture Mealy Bug. Farmers using tetraploid ryegrass to improve animal productivity will choose Endo5 to increase pasture persistence. Endo5 endophyte in ryegrass offers the following benefits:

  • Excellent insect protection for tetraploid ryegrasses
  • continual protection against Argentine Stem Weevil, Adult Black Beetle and Pasture Mealy Bug
  • Does not produce lolitrem B, a compound known to cause ryegrass staggers


Happe endophyte

Happe is a breakthrough technology that many farmers will benefit from. It was discovered in a meadow fescue plant and successfully transferred by DLF scientists into ryegrass plants. Happe produces substances called lolines, which have a powerful effect on many insects. Independent research has proved that Happe provides tolerance to the same insects as Edge, but also to porina. Happe has been tested by independent scientists to confirm that it does not cause ryegrass staggers and does not affect animal performance.
Happe has been tested throughout the country with great success. One of the trials highlighted the advantage of Happe, when it improved production by an average of 21% in five different cultivars from December to May. Happe is currently available in 24 seven and Ansa perennial ryegrasses

NEA2 Endophyte


NEA2 endophyte is ideally suited to intensive farming systems through all regions of NZ, providing persistent, staggers free pasture with excellent animal performance. Ryegrass with NEA2 gives good control of black beetle, to the same level as AR37. It also provides a level of control of Argentine stem weevil (ASW), pasture mealy bug (provisional rating) and root aphid, higher in the diploid cultivar Trojan than in Bealey.
Please browse the different the types of Tall Fescue endophyte below:

Max P Endophyte

Max P is a novel endophyte for the use in modern tall fescue cultivars. Max P greatly increases tall fescues persistence and production by protecting it from insects. In Canterbury trials yield increases of 25 -39 % have been recorded when comparing Max P with non-endophyte tall fescues. For more information on Max P Tall Fescues please contact Specialty Seeds.

Protek Endophyte

Protek endophyte is a novel tall fescue endophyte that does not produce any animal toxins, and has been tested by independent scientists to confirm it has no effect on animals. Protek produces lolines, which have a strong effect on many insect species. The lolines are present in both plant material above ground and in roots.
Insects that Protek works against include, Grass grub, Black beetle, Porina, Argentine stem weevil, Root aphid and Pasture mealy bug.


Downloads: If you require more information on Endophytes please download the Specialty Seeds Endophyte Options PDF.